Tag Archives: Verbal Lore

Fencing the Largest Area

Title: Fencing the Largest Area

General Information about Item:

  • Verbal lore, joke
  • Language: English
  • Country of Origin: United States
  • Informant: Ulf Österberg
  • Date Collected: 5-23-19

Informant Data:

  • Ulf Österberg has been a engineering professor at Dartmouth College since 1989. He teaches classes such as ENGS 23, Distributed Systems and Fields and ENGS 26, Control Theory. He was born in Gothenburg, Sweden and lived in Sweden until after he had earned his PhD in optics.

Contextual Data:

  • Cultural Context: Jokes were not common in classroom settings at the schools the informant attended, but he strongly believes that jokes are helpful for keeping students engaged and makes an effort to tell jokes such as this one in his classes. This joke includes a clever logical trick that you might expect to find in a mathematical proof to allow the mathematician to best the engineer. It also provides an example of a woman using her intelligence to beat a man who simply tries to use strength.
  • Social Context: This joke was recorded during an in-person interview with the informant. This joke was specifically intended to be told to students when it was relevant to the class. Telling jokes helps to connect students to the class and to the professor. The joke was originally heard with a cowboy and an ordinary person, but the informant turned it into an engineering joke to tell in classes.

Item:

Interview Recording:

Transcript of joke:

  • (4:54) “So what we have here is an engineer and the engineer… And its very appropriate to do it this way. This is not the way I first heard it, but in my retelling of this joke the engineer is this macho male and his opponent that he’s gonna compete against is a female mathematician. And the whole thing is that they are gonna try, from the time the sun comes up to the time the sun sets, they’re gonna try to fence in the largest area, and the engineer thinks he’s gonna win because he’s this big strong man, but he also prepares himself, so he makes sure he has a lot of posts, he has a lot of barbed wire, he looks at the terrain, you know, “I don’t want to go up in that direction, because that’s gonna be more work” and he really thinks this through to get the biggest area. Uh, the female mathematician is a little bit more or less [unknown], and is like, not too worried,  ‘yeah I have a few posts, some barbed wire, its gonna be fine.’ Ok, the day comes; the engineer is ready. He gets started immediately and, um, the female mathematician, she also gets up and puts a few posts in and some barbed wire around it and then she has a parasol and she goes and sits under it because it’s a hot sun, and there she sits, and sips some lemonade or whatever most of the day, eats and reads math books. Um, the sun sets and the judge says… You know, the engineer managed by running the last bit with the barbed wire [to] get it around the first post and really enclosing this big area and the, uh, referee says, ‘well, it’s pretty clear who won,’ and the female mathematician says, ‘well, wait a minute.’ She jumps into her little fencing thing and she says, ‘I define this as outside.'”

Informant’s Comments:

  • The informant said he grew up telling jokes in Sweden, but he had difficulty learning how to tell jokes and especially puns in English.

Collector’s Comments:

  • It is interesting to see how the informant took a joke he had heard in one context and turned it into a piece of engineering folklore for the specific purpose of performing it in a classroom.

Collector’s Name: Ben Wolsieffer

Tags/Keywords:

  • Engineering
  • Verbal Folklore
  • Joke
  • Comparison between fields

 

 

Rich Man

Title: Rich Man

General Information about Item:

  • Verbal Lore, proverb
  • Language: Hebrew
  • Informant: Jonathon Schneck
  • Date Collected: 11-03-18

Informant Data:

  • Jonathan Schneck is a student at Dartmouth College, and is currently a senior. He grew up in Long Island, New York. He attended North Shore Hebrew Academy High School. At Dartmouth, he is involved with Chabad, a Jewish student organization.

Contextual Data:

  • Cultural Context: This proverb has religious origins, demonstrating the importance of religious wisdom to this culture. It is said by Ben Zoma (a religious figure) in Chapter Four of Pirkei Avot. Pirkei Avot, known as Ethics of the Fathers in English, is a compilation of the ethical teachings passed down to the Rabbis.
  • Social Context: Jonathon learned this proverb from his father. It is of special importance to him because his father used the proverb to encourage Jonathon to follow his passion and not to follow something for money, or the wrong reasons. This proverb was thus intentionally used to instill wisdom from one generation to the next, in the language of their religion.

Item:

Orally transmitted proverb:

Translation: “Who is a rich man? One who is happy with his portion, as it is said, ‘You shall enjoy the fruit of your labors; you shall be happy and it will be good for you.’ ”

(Where the bolded first part has become the well known proverb)

Associated file (a video, audio, or image file):

 

Informant’s Comments:

  • Jonathon appreciated the structure of this proverb, as it begins with a question and thus brings special attention to it.

Collector’s Comments:

  • I especially like the rhythm of “Who is.. one who”, as it makes the proverb more memorable. It’s interesting this proverb addresses not comparing one’s self to others. I am curious if this is a common theme in the culture.

Collector’s Name: Madison Minsk

Tags/Keywords:

  • Verbal Lore
  • Hebrew Proverb
  • Relationships

Narrow Bridge

Title: Narrow Bridge

General Information about Item:

  • Verbal Lore, proverb
  • Language: Hebrew
  • Informant: Alex Leibowitz
  • Date Collected: 10-24-18

Informant Data:

  • Alex Leibowitz is a Dartmouth 2019 and studies Economics. He is from Scarsdale, NY and is a member of SAE fraternity. He is involved with Chabad on campus. He plans to pursue a career in finance after graduating.

Contextual Data:

  • Cultural Context: The origin of the Proverb is from the teachings of Rabbi Nachman. Rabbi Nachman has a group of followers that might say this proverb to each other. This proverb has also been turned into a children’s song, and it is more common for it to be shared through that medium. Rabbinical teachings are very important in the Jewish culture, as religion is a main source of wisdom. This is demonstrated by the transformation of the teachings of a religious leader into a proverb.
  • Social Context: Alex first heard this proverb in the song, and interprets this proverb as meaning not to look to the side at what others have, or down on others, but to look straight ahead. He believes that relationships can be tenuous and fraught with tension, but that it is important to get past problems by looking ahead. This proverb has been a helpful way for him to remind himself of that.

Item:

Orally transmitted proverb:

“Kol ha-o-lam ku-lo gesher tzar me’od
V’ha-i-kar lo l’fached klal”

Translation:

“The whole world is a very narrow bridge. The important thing is not to be afraid.”

Associated file (a video, audio, or image file):

 

Informant’s Comments:

  • Alex enjoyed that a proverb had been turned into a song, which is a powerful way to spread information, especially among younger people.

Collector’s Comments:

  • I liked this proverb because of its many possible interpretations. In a lot of ways it remains very open ended as to its meaning, allowing it to be applicable in many different situations.

Collector’s Name: Madison Minsk

Tags/Keywords:

  • Verbal Lore
  • Hebrew Proverb
  • Relationships

 

Enemy’s Downfall – Humorous Version

Title: Enemy’s Downfall- Humorous Version

General Information about Item: 

  • Verbal Lore, proverb
  • Language: English (Hebrew, Yiddish)
  • Informant: Sarah Katzenell
  • Date Collected: 29 October 2018

Informant Data

  • Sarah Katzenell was born in Jerusalem and raised in Jerusalem through the early 2000s. Her family was Jewish and Israeli, and Sarah speaks fluent Hebrew and English and knows limited amounts of Yiddish. She moved to Hanover, NH with her husband to receive a PhD in immunology, and now works as a post doctorate researcher in a biochemistry lab at Dartmouth College.

Contextual Data

  • Social Context: Sarah says that she has heard or used this proverb only in a professional setting, such as at work or with adult friends. Situations in which she has used the phrase in her life include finding out that a rival lab has failed to publish, or back in Israel with Palestine would do something that harmed their own country. Sarah said that the proverb is usually said with a hint of irony, and can be used to reassure yourself and others near you that it is acceptable in certain scenarios to not be upset when something bad happens to another. As it would seem like an ethical dilemma to publicly display happy or celebratory emotions when others are suffering, the proverb provides an “out” from this moral binding in which one reminds themselves and friends that the victim person, corporation, or nation has purposefully wished you ill in the past and it is therefore acceptable to not feel a need to assist them back.
  • Cultural Context: Sarah has heard the proverb in English, Yiddish, and Hebrew, but tends to use it in English. English and Hebrew are both frequently spoken by one person in Israel.

Item

The piece as recited by Sarah in English as this is how she usually uses the proverb. (Note that in Israel, the majority of people are fluent and communicate in both English and Hebrew.)

“If your enemy falls down, don’t rejoice! But also, do not help them get up too fast.”

 

Collector’s Notes

  • I was particularly fascinated by this proverb as it is clearly similar (and likely derived from) its religious counterpart recounted by Shoshana Zohar above, “Do not rejoice at your enemy’s downfall.” This type of “conversion” from more Biblical to humorous proverbs was also seen in one of the Catholic proverbs collected within my group. Based on the way this proverb is used in the same situation as its more serious counterpart, but to elicit a different response (humor vs shame in response to a reprimand), it seems possible this proverb is meant to pick fun at the Biblical teaching. This would be consistent with the more cynical and dry humor of the other Yiddish proverbs I collected.

Collector’s Name: Hannah Margolis

Hannah Margolis, 20

Hinman Box 2464

Dartmouth College

Hanover, NH 03755

Russian 13

Fall 2018

Tags/Keywords 

  • Verbal Lore
  • Proverbs
  • Yiddish Proverb
  • Relationships
  • Enemy

Cost of Friends vs Enemies

Title: Cost of Friends vs Enemies

General Information about Item: 

  • Verbal Lore, proverb
  • Language: English
  • Informant: Sarah Katzenell
  • Date Collected: 29 October 2018

Informant Data

  • Sarah Katzenell was born in Jerusalem and raised in Jerusalem through the early 2000s. Her family was Jewish and Israeli, and Sarah speaks fluent Hebrew and English and knows limited amounts of Yiddish. She moved to Hanover, NH with her husband to receive a PhD in immunology, and now works as a post doctorate researcher in a biochemistry lab at Dartmouth College.

Contextual Data

  • Social Context: Sarah says that she has often heard or used this proverb in her daily life when discussing personal relationships. For instance, she says that the proverb would be appropriately invoked when someone is complaining about the work and time that is required to make a friend or when fretting about something trivial that they feel has made someone dislike them. Especially when speaking with young children who are first learning to make and maintain friends, Sarah believes the proverb offers excellent advice as a way to remind people that you must work hard for friends, but it is worth it. Similarly, it is important to be reminded that sometimes people dislike us for reasons that are not worth getting personally upset over. The proverb is therefore told in a way that is humorous, relieves tension from a strained relationship, but is often meant to be met with relief or appreciation that relationships in general are complicated.
  • Cultural Context: Sarah has heard the proverb in English, Yiddish, and Hebrew, but tends to use it in English. English and Hebrew are both frequently spoken by one person in Israel.

Item

The piece was recited in English by Sarah as this is how she uses it most frequently.

“Friends cost money, but enemies are for free.”

 

Collector’s Notes

  • This proverb does not fit into the structures suggested by Dundes, but clearly relies on parallelism (friends cost money vs enemies cost no money). I was interested in this proverb as an example of a more humorous proverb that Sarah suggested was originally Yiddish in nature (although she does not speak Yiddish and instead knows it in English). As common in Yiddish proverbs that I collected, this proverb demonstrates a rather cynical and dry humor that takes an unpleasant fact of life and makes it laughable (compare to “Better the devil you know than the devil you don’t!). Furthermore, the humorous nature of this proverb once again provides a great example of the way proverbs are used to dispel tension while providing advice.

Collector’s Name: Hannah Margolis

Hannah Margolis, 20

Hinman Box 2464

Dartmouth College

Hanover, NH 03755

Russian 13

Fall 2018

Tags/Keywords 

  • Verbal Lore
  • Proverbs
  • Yiddish Proverb
  • Relationships
  • Friends
  • Enemies

 

Enemy’s Downfall

Title: Enemy’s Downfall

General Information about Item: 

  • Verbal Lore, proverb
  • Language: Hebrew
  • Informant: Shoshana Zohar
  • Date Collected: 1 November 2018

Informant Data

  • Shoshana Zohar was born 13 November 1988 in Elko, Nevada to a Jewish mother and Jewish, Israeli father. Shoshana was raised Jewish and after visiting Israel as a young adult, decided she felt safer there than in her home country. She moved to Israel in January 2013. Shoshana speaks fluent Hebrew and English.

Contextual Data

  • Culture Context: Shoshana was often taught this proverb, which is biblical in nature, growing up. She did not recall a time when someone told this proverb to her, but imagines she would likely feel ashamed if someone had to point out her improper behavior towards someone else’s pain.
  • Social Context: Although she doesn’t recall any of the specific instances when it was told to her, she indicated that she would likely use this proverb to remind someone to be kind or a gracious winner. For instance, Shoshana expressed that the proverb should be used as a reprimand when a lack of respect or humbleness is demonstrated when someone else, even if it is someone you do not like, is suffering.

Item

The piece was recited by Shoshana Zohar over a phone call and then repeated in Hebrew, followed by English translation for Hannah to record. Shoshana kindly provided the Hebrew text.

בנפול אויבך אל תשמח

Translation word for word:

“Downfall your enemy unto rejoice.”

Translation general:

“Do not rejoice at your enemy’s downfall.”

 

Collector’s notes

  • This piece is a typical example of a Jewish Biblical  proverb in that it acts as a commandment, has serious imagery, and does not match any of Dundes’ suggested structures. Importantly, this was the first proverb I collected that was intended to elicit a negative emotion in the receiver. Among the proverbs my group collected, it was far more common for the proverb to serve as a way to dispel tension or add humor to a serious situation. However, this proverb clearly violates that usual function in providing a rather harsh reprimand. Therefore, we see that while this proverb does not serve the usual function of dispelling tension, it clearly teaches social norms and cultural expectations, which is another important function of proverbs. I am particularly interested in analyzing this proverb as it relates to its more casual and  humorous  counterpart. Please see this link.

Collector’s Name: Hannah Margolis

Hannah Margolis, 20

Hinman Box 2464

Dartmouth College

Hanover, NH 03755

Russian 13

Fall 2018

Tags/Keywords 

  • Verbal Lore
  • Proverbs
  • Hebrew Proverb
  • Relationships
  • Enemy

Teacher and Student

Title: Teacher and Student

General Information about Item: 

  • Verbal Lore, proverb
  • Language: Hebrew
  • Informant: Shoshana Zohar
  • Date Collected: 1 November 2018

Informant Data

  • Shoshana Zohar was born 13 November 1988 in Elko, Nevada to a Jewish mother and Jewish, Israeli father. Shoshana was raised Jewish and after visiting Israel as a young adult, decided she felt safer there than in her home country. She moved to Israel in January 2013. Shoshana speaks fluent Hebrew and English.

Contextual Data

  • Cultural Context: Shoshana first heard the proverb when she admitted to her cousin that she was too shy to ask something. It was said in a friendly but firm way to remind Shoshana that if she wanted to learn something, she would have to “get over” her shyness at least momentarily to ask. The second part of the proverb was told to her in a more soothing way to remind Shoshana that educators and people that teach will not be impatient or harsh with her or they would not choose to be educators.
  • Social Context:  Shoshana says the two parts of the proverb can be used individually. For instance, she says that when she gets impatient at work when trying to teach someone how to do something, she’ll remind herself of this part of the proverb as a self-criticism to try harder to be patient. Shoshana would also use this proverb or tell it to others if she saw someone like her too shy to ask something, or someone being impatient when teaching another something.
  • Shoshana invokes the first part of the proverb most often to remind herself that to use something she has just learned and may not have mastered yet. She added, “If you are too afraid of how you’ll look when you try something or when you ask a question, you won’t learn or improve.”
  • Shoshana also indicated that this proverb isn’t always used literally. For instance, it can be used simply to relate to the fact that certain pairs of people will not work well together. Shoshana said that this proverb can be said to an acquaintance when discussing a dysfunctional relationship or partnership among two people with contradictory personalities.

Item

The piece was recited by Shoshana Zohar over a phone call and then repeated in Hebrew, followed by English translation for Hannah to record. Shoshana kindly provided the Hebrew text.

לא הביישן למד, ולא הקפדן מלמד

Word for Word Translation:

“No the shy learn, and no strict teaches.”

Translation:

“The shy one does not learn, and the impatient one doesn’t teach.”

 

Collector’s Notes

  • I was unsure when I first heard this piece if it was in fact a proverb. The initial situation in which Shoshana explained it was used was far too literal with no use of metaphor. However, when Shoshana explained that the proverb can also be used to refer to any pair of people in a difficult relationship, the proverb gained metaphorical meaning.
  • The proverb itself lacks the structures suggested by Dundes, but clearly has a parallel structure of its own that is unique among the proverbs I collected. The piece is also interesting as it does not seem to suggest a way of resolving the situation (two people that aren’t able to work together), but rather provides the absolute that such a relationship will not work.

Collector’s Name: Hannah Margolis

Hannah Margolis, 20

Hinman Box 2464

Dartmouth College

Hanover, NH 03755

Russian 13

Fall 2018

Tags/Keywords 

  • Verbal Lore
  • Proverbs
  • Hebrew Proverb
  • Relationships
  • Teaching
  • Learning

 

 

Difficult Person

Title: Difficult Person

General Information about Item: 

  • Verbal Lore, proverb
  • Language: English and Yiddish
  • Informant: Hannah Margolis
  • Date Collected: 28 October 2018

Informant Data

  • Hannah K Margolis was born and raised in north-eastern Nevada. She is Jewish by birth, and her mother, father, and father’s parents all practiced Judaism actively throughout her early life. Her grandparents spoke and could read both Yiddish and English, so when Hannah visited them in Baltimore she was exposed to Yiddish sayings and their contexts.

Contextual Data

  • Cultural Context: Although Hannah doesn’t remember when or where she first started using the proverb in question, it was likely picked up during her childhood from her grandparents. She uses the proverb as advice when someone mentions having to deal with a difficult person- often someone they don’t get along with from former experience. Most often, she would invoke it when a difficult relative was visiting and someone mentioned dreading the visit.
  • Social Context: The proverb itself is meant to be met with amusement and is used casually. Often, the amusement can help relax the tense situation of awaiting said relative or acquaintance’s arrival. To Hannah, the proverb should convey a sense of relief and reminder that it is better to deal with a difficult person you do know than a difficult person you do not know as when dealing with someone you do know, you can at least be aware of what is ahead, manage expectations, and have experience on how to make the encounter less difficult. The proverb can be said to people of all ages and regardless of which family member or acquaintance they are experiencing difficulty with.

Item

The piece was recalled in its English version, which is how Hannah has always used it. She is aware that the piece also has a Yiddish translation from which it originated, which she looked up and provided.

“Better the devil you know than the devil you don’t!”

Translation to Yiddish-

“Besser mitn taivel vos m’ken eider mitn taivel vos, ‘ken im nit!”

 

Collector’s Comments

  • This proverb is a clear example of Dundes’ “Better _______ than ______ structure” and  a clear example of a Yiddish proverb. Particularly in English, this proverb had the interesting characteristic in that it is rather a mouthful to say and has a specific rhythm to it. Given that this proverb is used to dispel tension through humor (as well as give advice), I have speculated that the rhythm and clunkiness of the English saying within itself provides a way of diverting a conversation out of concerns over a relatives visit and into the proverb and humorous response to follow.

Collector’s Name: Hannah Margolis

Hannah Margolis, 20

Hinman Box 2464

Dartmouth College

Hanover, NH 03755

Russian 13

Fall 2018

Tags/Keywords 

  • Verbal Lore
  • Proverbs
  • Yiddish Proverb
  • Relationships
  • Family
  • Friends

 

 

Elder Respect

Title: Elder Respect

General Information about Item: 

  • Verbal Lore, proverb
  • Language: Hebrew
  • Informant: Rabbi Meir Cohen Goldstein
  • Date Collected: 5 October 2018

Informant Data

  • Rabbi Meir Cohen Goldstein was born in Phoenix, Arixona and received his master’s of rabbinic studies and rabbinic ordination from the Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies at the American Jewish University. Goldstein worked for three years at Elon University as the associate chaplain for Jewish Life after serving as rabbi for the Commack Jewish Center in Commack, New York. He began his position of tenured Dartmouth Hillel Rabbi in July 2018.

Contextual Data

  • Cultural Context: A custom in Israel is that when an elder gets onto the bus, one gets up to offer them their seat. The proverb may be used in this literal sense if a child or visitor does not know this custom, but Rabbi Goldstein said that it is understood that anyone who is a teacher or worthy of your respect deserves this sign. He suggested that the proverb is understood as a “general principle to honor Torah and the wisdom of our tradition by honoring rabbis and Jewish scholars.”
  • Social Context: As such, the proverb is often delivered as a reprimand or reminder or stern reminder when someone behaves in a disrespectful manner, particularly towards an elder.

Item

The piece was provided in written form and translated orally by Rabbi Goldstein in both the word for word and general translation.

מִפְּנֵ֤י שֵׂיבָה֙ תָּק֔וּם

Translation- word for word

“Before the white haired, get up.”

Translation- general

“Before the elderly, stand up.”

Collector’s Comments

  • This proverb is particularly interesting as it is related (unclear whether in cause or effect) to a physical gesture used to show respect. I initially thought this was not a proverb at all, but a set of verbal instructions as to how to physically act in a specific social situation. However, Rabbi Goldstein insisted that the saying is also used as a reprimand against disrespectful behavior or speech, especially towards one’s elders or teachers. In this case, this proverb can  be seen as another Biblical proverb that does not match Dundes’ structural formulas and acts as a commandment. This proverb is also an excellent example of the way in which proverbs are commonly used to teach about one’s heritage or culture. This proverb is highly effective in this respect as it both provides key cultural information (that elders are considered very important and should always be treated with respect) and also information on how to respond to a physical situation appropriately.

Collector’s Name: Hannah Margolis

Hannah Margolis, 20

Hinman Box 2464

Dartmouth College

Hanover, NH 03755

Russian 13

Fall 2018

Tags/Keywords 

  • Verbal Lore
  • Proverbs
  • Hebrew Proverb
  • Respect
  • Elders

Duty to Others

Title: Duty to Others

General Information about Item: 

  • Verbal Lore, proverb
  • Language: Hebrew
  • Informant: Rabbi Meir Cohen Goldstein
  • Date Collected: 5 October 2018

Informant Data

  • Rabbi Meir Cohen Goldstein was born in Phoenix, Arixona and received his master’s of rabbinic studies and rabbinic ordination from the Ziegler School of Rabbinic Studies at the American Jewish University. Goldstein worked for three years at Elon University as the associate chaplain for Jewish Life after serving as rabbi for the Commack Jewish Center in Commack, New York. He began his position of tenured Dartmouth Hillel Rabbi in July 2018.

Contextual Data

  • Social Context: Rabbi Goldstein often uses this proverb with friends and with his wife. He explained the context as almost joking or teasing in nature, designed to be a friendly reminder of the obligation friends have towards each other rather than a reprimand or accusation. As a common example, Rabbi Goldstein said that his wife, Laura, loves sweets and will often bring them home. However, Rabbi Goldstein says he will eat all of them, and when he sees that Laura has brought sweets home, he’ll say the proverb to her.
  • Cultural Context: The proverb is biblical in nature, but Rabbi Goldstein does not think this prevents it from being applicable to others. He explained it to be as a reminder that when someone has an inability to see things, it is our obligation to make sure that we do not do anything that may trip them up, literally or metaphorically. Instead, Rabbi Goldstein suggests it is our personal obligation to understand the shortcoming of those close to us and make sure we do not purposefully make something more difficult for them.

Item

The piece was presented in the original biblical Hebrew by Rabbi Goldstein and translated orally in its literal and general form. Rabbi Goldstein kindly provided the Hebrew writing.

לִפְנֵ֣י עִוֵּ֔ר לֹ֥א תִתֵּ֖ן מִכְשֹׁ֑ל

Translation- word for word

“Before sightless no give them offense.”

Translation- general

“Do not place a stumbling block before the blind.”

Collector’s Comments

  • This proverb is an excellent example of the type of Biblical proverbs we found common in the Jewish culture. The proverb is presented as a commandment rather than in the structures presented by Dundes and uses serious imagery. Very interestingly, although this proverb invokes a rather serious image and strict, Biblical teachings, Rabbi Goldstein suggested it is often used in a light and humorous way among friends and family. It seems that this proverb has a dual nature in which it can either be used in such a joking manner or used as a more strict reminder of the mutual responsibility two people in a relationship have towards each other.
  • This proverb also provides a good example of the way proverbs can be an important means of cultural or religious instruction.

Collector’s Name: Hannah Margolis

Hannah Margolis, 20

Hinman Box 2464

Dartmouth College

Hanover, NH 03755

Russian 13

Fall 2018

Tags/Keywords 

  • Verbal Lore
  • Proverbs
  • Hebrew Proverb
  • Relationships
  • Responsibility